South Africa is a large country and has diverse climactic regions, but in general the weather is sunny and hot in the summer months (December to April), and mild during winter (May to November). Winters in the Cape are cold and wet, and snow falls on the mountain ranges here and in Natal. Gauteng and the northern areas experience thunderstorms regularly during evenings in the summer months, and winters are usually warm during the day and cold at night.
Travelers arriving in South Africa from infected areas require a yellow fever vaccination certificate, otherwise no vaccinations are required. There is a malaria risk in the low-lying areas of the Northern Province and Mpumalanga (including the Kruger National Park) and northeastern Kwa-Zulu Natal, and precautions are advised when travelling to these areas. There is a high prevalence of HIV/AIDS. Tap water is safe in urban areas but bottle water is advisable elsewhere, as there are periodic outbreaks of cholera in the poor communities of rural South Africa, particularly in Northern Kwa-Zulu Natal,Mpumalanga, and Limpopo provinces. Drug-resistant TB has been reported throughout the country. Food poisoning is rare. Medical facilities in South Africa are good, but medical insurance is strongly advised as private hospitals expect cash upfront and public hospitals are best avoided.